Rising to over 2,600m with two mountain blocks, Uluguru Mountains are part of the Eastern Arc Mountains, old crystallinechain of mountains extending from south east Kenya to the south east of Tanzania, recognized as a global biodiversity "hot spot", for high species richness, large number of endemic plant and animal species, and the delicate nature from human caused disturbances. Among them are Usambara Mountains and Udzungwa Mountains. These mountains are also given credit for the unique and diverse hydrological importance to the forest vegetation
There are 15 species of birds which are under conservation interest, 11 endemic reptiles and amphibians, three threatened and two endemic mammals. Much of the mountains are covered with forest reserves that contains some of the oldest species trees.